The Financial Regulator recently brought out a new code of conduct for mortgage arrears, the full length eight page document is here.
The code applies to: all of the regulated mortgage lenders in the state (this includes the sub-prime lenders), as well as all mortgage lenders operating here via other EU states (eg: Leeds Building Soc.)
It applies to consumers only, and only in respect of their principle private residence in the state. The code should be treated as an extension of the Consumer Protection Code.
Scope: The code covers finance for primary homes, lenders must adopt flexible procedures that aim to assist the borrower as far as possible. It sets out what the lenders must do in an arrears case but allows repossession where the code is not appropriate (fraud, breach of contract, abandonment). It doesn’t relieve the borrower from their duties to repay
Legal Background: S117 of the Central Bank Act 1989
Avoiding an arrears problem: Once arrears arise the lender must promptly communicate with the borrower to establish grounds for same.
Handling an arrears problem: The lender must make every effort in correspondence by telephone, mail, or meeting to find a resolution. A plan for clearing the arrears should be made which is in the interest of both parties, all viable options must be considered. If a third payment is missed the lender has the right to issue a formal demand. At this stage the borrower must have been advised in writing of
1. The total amount of arrears
2. Any excess interest (as a rate or amount) that may continue to be charged and the basis of how it is charged, any charges payable and the basis of them.
3. Advice regarding the consequences of failing to respond – namely the risk of legal proceedings with an estimate of costs to the borrower of same.
If arrears persis the lenders has the right to enforce the agreement (repossess the property) however, they must wait 12 months from the time arrears first arose before applying to the courts (civil bill). The lender must notify the borrower when it commences legal action for repossession.
Addressing an arrears problem: Lenders can distinguish between those ‘unable’ to pay, and those who are ‘unwilling’ to pay. they must examine each case on its individual merits. Overall indebtedness must be considered. They should look into one or more of the following solutions –
1. An arrangement where the monthly payment is changed in order to address the arrears
2. Deferring payment of all or part of the instalment for a period if appropriate
3. Extending the term of the mortgage
4. Changing the type of mortgage if it results in reduced payments.
5. Capitalising the arrears and interest if it results in repayment capacity and if sufficient equity exists.
The borrower must be advised to take appropriate independent advice. Lenders must give borrowers clear explanations in writing along with costs/charges that may arise, they must continue to monitor the situation, the borrower must have a relevant contact in the lenders firm.
Where appropriate the lender should refer the borrower to MABS, at the borrowers request and with their consent the lender can liase with a nominated third party. the borrower should be made aware of all alternatives, trading down, voluntary sale, or refinancing elsewhere.
Repossession proceedings: A lender must exhaust every alternative before seeking reposseession, an abscence of engagement is considered grounds for this. It may also come about via voluntary possession, by the borrower notifying the lender, or via court order.
Even in a repossession case the lender must maintain contact with the borrower or their nominated representative. If agreement can be made the lender must enter talks and put a hold on proceedings if an agreed regular payment is maintained.
The lender let the borrower know that no matter how the property is repossessed and disposed of, the borrower will remain liable for the outstanding debt, including any accrued interest, charges, legal, selling and other related costs, if this is the case.
Retention and Production of Documents: A lender must keep and maintain adequate records of all the steps taken, and all of the considerations and assessments required by this Code, and must produce all such records to the Financial Regulator upon request.